Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin.
The foreskin is the retractable fold of skin that covers the end of the penis. It’s a continuation of the skin that covers the whole penis.
Circumcision in adult males may be carried out for a number of reasons, both medical and non-medical.
Tight foreskin (phimosis)
Phimosis is where the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis (glans).This can sometimes cause pain when the penis is erect and, in rare cases, passing urine may be difficult.
Balanitis is where the foreskin and head of the penis become inflamed and infected.
Paraphimosis is where the foreskin can’t be returned to its original position after being pulled back, causing the head of the penis to become swollen and painful. Immediate treatment is needed to avoid serious complications, such as restricted blood flow to the penis.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans
This condition causes phimosis and, in some cases, also affects the head of the penis, which can become scarred and inflamed.